Through the great artistic centres of the Southern Netherlands such as Antwerp and Brussels, sixteenth-century Leuven painters came into contact with the new painting style. The result was a break with the fifteenth-century tradition begun by Dieric Bouts. The painter Jan Rombouts, hitherto known as Jan van Rillaer (1495-1568), played a pioneering role in that process. Recent scientific research on Jan Rombouts has produced important discoveries about the man himself and about his uvre. This book is the first to highlight Romboutss work.